Darius Muniz, Eric D. Shafarman, Angelica Maciel
& Malcolm S. Ranger-Murdock
New York University
I. What do counseling psychologists do?
* Counseling psychology facilitates personal and interpersonal functioning across the life span with a focus on emotional, social, vocational, educational, health-related, developmental, and organizational concerns.
* Through the integration of theory, research, and practice, and with a sensitivity to multicultural issues, this specialty encompasses a broad range of practices that help people improve their well-being, alleviate distress and maladjustment, resolve crises, and increase their ability to live more highly functioning lives.
II. What is the difference between counseling and clinical psychology?
* Traditionally, the main difference between counseling and clinical psychology is their perspective and training.
* Counseling psychologists focus more on the psychologically healthy individuals where clinical focuses on individuals with serious mental illness (e.g. schizophrenia).
* Counseling Psychology has grown out of Vocational Psychology and has a strong educational component whereas Clinical programs are more medically orientated in nature focusing on the treatment of mental illness.
III. Career Possibilities and Work Settings
* A Counseling Psychologist can consult with a variety of agencies (e.g. schools, government, private organizations)
* Teach at the College Level (undergrad and graduate levels)
* Do Research * Conduct Therapy (e.g. group, individual, family)
* Hold Academic Administrative Positions (e.g. dean of a college)
IV. Theoretical Orientations and Therapies
* Family Therapy * Client Centered * Solution Focused Brief Therapy
* Gestalt Therapy * Cognitive Behavioral Therapy * The Existential Approach
V. Important Individuals in Counseling
* Carl Ransom Rogers (1902 – 1987) * Friedrich Salomon Perls (1893-1970)
* Irvin David Yalom (b. June 13, 1931) * Alfred Adler (1870 –1937)
VI. Education and Training
* In the U.S. Counseling Psychology Programs are accredited by the (APA)
* While Counseling Programs are accredited through the (CACREP)
* How Does One Become a Counseling Psychologist?
* Counseling Psychologists are trained at the doctoral level (usually PhD, but also Psy.D. or Ed.D.)
* What is the difference between MA and PhD programs?
* An MA in counseling generally takes 2-3 years to complete depending on the program and whether you do it full or part time, So it takes considerably less time to complete than an PhD and you are minimally involved in research.
* PhD in Counseling Psychology: These take about 5 years to complete. Generally you take 4 years for classes, research, clinical practica, and then complete an internship in the 5th year. You also complete a dissertation in the 4th year before going on internship. PhD programs generally require more clinical experience and involvement in research than masters’ level programs.
* What do I need for admission into graduate programs?
* · GRE Scores (you need to take this test)
· Letters of recommendation (the number can vary from 3-5)
· Good grades (an overall GPA of at least a 3.0 is the absolute minimum)
· Volunteer or paid experience in a clinical setting · Experience in a research setting
VII. Scholarly Journals and Organizations
* Scholarly Journals: The Counseling Psychologist; Counseling Psychology; Counseling Psychology Quarterly; 17 Newsletter; Journal of Conflict Resolution & Journal of College Counseling
* Counseling Organizations: American Counseling Association; American Psychological Association (Division 17) & National Board of Certified Counselors
VIII. Literature Review
* Topic: The Therapeutic Alliance and its Effects on Addiction in Adult Substance Abuse Patients
* Trends: The Therapeutic Alliance has been shown to be a crucial feature of the client- therapist relationship which promotes progress in drug therapies. Specific qualities of the therapist and Client factors have also been shown to contribute to a strong therapeutic alliance. A combination of these factors, along with reliable and valid measurements of the therapeutic alliance, have shown that a strong relationship early in the therapy process will produce more positive treatment outcomes than have been achieved without this defining feature.
* Gaps: some gaps in the research have been to identify client traits and coping techniques with disregard to the counselors’ traits and techniques that would affect this relationship. Another gap has been that the expectancies of only the client have been taken into account ignoring the counselors’ expectations which are equally important in creating a strong bond. Finally there are many measurements indicating the importance of the therapeutic alliance, yet there is no one measurement that takes into account all the crucial features of both the counselor and client.
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